英語

20161107

Smoking 'causes hundreds of DNA changes'

Smoking leaves an "archaeological record" of the hundreds of DNA mutations it causes, scientists have discovered.

Having sequenced thousands of tumour genomes, they found a 20-a-day smoker would rack up an average of 150 mutations in every lung cell each year.

The changes are permanent, and persist even if someone gives up smoking.

rack up【句動】〔損失などを〕こうむる

Researchers say analysing tumour DNA may help explain the underlying causes of other cancers.

Pamela Pugh, 69, was diagnosed with lung cancer in 2013. She started smoking aged 17 and quit in her early 50s.

But she said: "Even though I gave up many years ago, the effects of smoking caught up with me.

"Had I known as a teenager that smoking caused mutations which would stay with me for life then I would never had started".

The study, in the journal Science, was carried out by an international group, including the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute in Cambridgeshire and the Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico.

The analysis shows a direct link between the number of cigarettes smoked in a lifetime and the number of mutations in tumour DNA.

The authors found that, on average, smoking a packet of cigarettes a day led to:

150 mutations in each lung cell every year

97 in the larynx or voice box

23 in the mouth

18 in the bladder

six in the liver

Joint lead author Prof Sir Mike Stratton, from the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, said: "The more mutations there are, the higher the chance that these will occur in the key genes that we call cancer genes, which convert a normal cell into a cancer cell."

The researchers said that in tissues such as the lung, which are directly exposed to smoke, they could find the mutational signature of the chemicals in tobacco smoke, of which at least 60 are carcinogens.

However, they could not find this same pattern in tissues such as the bladder, which are not directly exposed.

Prof Stratton said in these organs smoking seemed to be accelerating a natural mutational process, but how it did this was "mysterious and complex".

He said the same investigative approach could be used with other cancers where the underlying causes were less well understood.

"By looking in the genomes of the cancers, we will find the archaeological traces of past exposures which have been responsible for generating the cancers and that may potentially lead to prevention," he said.

Dr David Gilligan, consultant oncologist at Papworth Hospital and Roy Castle Lung Foundation trustee, said: "For every 150 mutations in the cell each year, that is 150 opportunities for lung cancer to develop.

"Lung cancer has been at the bottom of the survival league for many years, but there are many exciting developments, including immunotherapy and genetically targeted drug treatments."

Ms Pugh has received treatment at Papworth and Addenbrooke's Hospitals in Cambridgeshire.

She has just spent six months on a trial of a drug that aims to disrupt the genes that drive the growth of lung cancer.

Participants in the Matrix trial have DNA from their tumours examined to check they have genes that may respond to the drug.

「have + 目的語 + 過去分詞」「使役」「させる、してもらう」

I had my watch repaired.「私は時計を修理してもらった

腫瘍のDNAが効くかどうかcheckするため検査をしてもらう

But a scan has shown the tumour in Ms Pugh's right lung is growing, and she has had to leave the trial.

the tumour in Ms Pugh's right lungは増殖している、つまり薬が効かないよってtrialからleave

She will now undergo more chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

There are 35,000 deaths a year in the UK from lung cancer, and it is estimated that nine out of 10 cases are preventable.

20161031

Tesla shows off solar roof tiles


The new tiles look better than existing solar roofs, Tesla says
Roof tiles with built-in solar panels have been unveiled by Tesla chief executive Elon Musk.
The tiles, made from glass, are intended to be a more attractive way to add solar panels to homes, compared with currently-used solar technology.
The launch took place in Universal Studios, Los Angeles, on what used to be the set for the television show Desperate Housewives.
It comes with Tesla due to take over struggling energy firm Solar City.
Some of the electric carmaker's investors have expressed concern over the takeover, suggesting it is a Tesla-funded bail-out of a company Mr Musk has a vested interest in as its biggest shareholder.
vested interest既得権、確定的権利、利害関係
Bringing the solar tiles to the Desperate Housewives set was a way of displaying the idea's key selling point: it looks far better than solar panelling. Mr Musk jokingly described it as a "sweet roof!".
No price was given for the tiles, which come in a variety of colours and styles, though Mr Musk did say it would be cheaper than fitting a traditional roof and then adding solar on top.
Also part of the launch was Powerwall 2, Tesla's home battery product. The primary function of the Powerwall is to store any surplus energy from the solar panels. It will cost $5,500 (£4,511), Mr Musk said.
Tesla posted a surprise profit in its last quarterly earnings - its first in three years.
The $2.6bn acquisition of Solar City seems set to see the company plunge back into the red, but Mr Musk insisted on Friday that the deal made sense as having separate companies would "slow things down".
look set to~することが確実視されている、~する[~になる]ようである
separate company別会社
 slow things down 減速
Tesla shareholders vote on the acquisition on 17 November.
20161028
Images reveal crashed Mars lander
The European Space Agency has tried hard to avoid using the words "crash" or "failure" about its attempted Mars landing but the fate of the spacecraft is cruelly exposed in new pictures.
try hard【句動】一生懸命[精いっぱい]やってみる[努力する]、一生懸命[大変な]努力をする、頑張る、懸命にこらえる
The Schiaparelli lander is seen in greater detail than ever before, lying on the Martian surface.
It is well within its intended landing zone but obviously unable to function.
The images, gathered by Nasa, could provide important new clues about what went wrong.
They show a dark patch around the capsule - a possible hint that a fuel tank exploded - and the indication is that the impact gouged out a crater 50cm deep.
Last week's landing - a joint Esa-Russian Space Agency (Roscosmos) endeavour - was billed as a "technology demonstrator" to pave the way for a far bigger venture in 2020 with a sophisticated rover to hunt for clues about life.
The loss raises difficult questions about the risks involved in that follow-on mission and whether Esa's member governments will be too nervous to pledge the funds needed to mount it.
The Schiaparelli spacecraft was meant to touch down last week using a combination of a heat-shield and a parachute to slow its fall and retro-rockets to lower it to the surface.
meant to
《be ~》〔物が〕~であることを[~するように]意図されて[作られて]いる
《be ~》〔人が〕~になるよう運命づけられている文例
《be ~》〈英〉〔義務として〕~しなければならない、~することになっている
Instead communications were lost during what should have been the final minute of the descent and it is estimated that the spacecraft hit the ground at about 300kph.
It was quickly established that the parachute and back cover were released earlier than they should have been, according to a pre-programmed sequence of tasks.
It is also known that the retro-rockets, which should have fired for 30 seconds, only operated for three or four seconds, and the lander probably fell from a height of 2-4km.
In the aftermath of the attempt, Esa's Director-General, Jan Woerner, claimed that the mission was a success because the spacecraft transmitted data for five of the six minutes of its descent, providing useful information and proving that key stages of the operation had worked well.
He also highlighted that the lander's mother ship, known as the Trace Gas Orbiter, had been successfully placed in an orbit that would allow it to sniff the Martian atmosphere for hints of methane.
Soon after the mission, Nasa's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter gathered pictures of the landing zone which revealed the presence of two new dots in the Martian landscape - a dark one for the spacecraft and a white one for the parachute.
Now the same spacecraft has used its more powerful HiRise camera - with a resolution of 30cm per pixel - to focus on the landing zone and produce the images released today.
In a bitter irony, it was the same US orbiter that managed to spot Europe's earlier attempt at a Mars landing, with the Beagle-2 mission in 2003.
Those images showed how the tiny craft had made it to the surface in one piece but then failed to fully open its solar panels which meant that it could not communicate or survive.
made it to に進む[へ進出する]

20160422

Microsoft Windows hurt by PC sales slump
Microsoft's quarterly profit has missed analysts' estimates as a continued slump in personal computer sales hurt the company's core Windows business.
The firm's net income fell to $3.76bn (£2.6bn) in the third quarter from $4.99bn a year earlier.
Its shares were down more than 4% in after hours trading.
Revenue in its cloud business, which includes Azure, rose 3.3% to $6.1bn, but operating profits at the division shrank 14%.
 
azure【名】空色 青空
operating profit営業利益
 
 
"We would have liked to have seen 7% to 9% growth," said Dan Morgan, a portfolio manager at Synovus Trust, which holds Microsoft shares, said of cloud revenue.
"We're trying to validate this story that Microsoft is truly becoming a cloud company, and they're not going to be relying on the desktop computer."
 
validate【他動】~の正当性を立証する
 
Revenue at the software giant fell to $20.53bn from $21.73bn, lower than the $22.09bn analysts had expected.
Continued weakness in the personal computing market hobbled demand for one-time licences for some of its products, the company said.
 
hobble【他動】~の進行を妨害する
 
 
20160419
Dinosaurs 'in decline' 50 million years before asteroid strike
By Pallab Ghosh
The dinosaurs were already in decline 50 million years before the asteroid strike that finally wiped them out, a study suggests.
The new assessment adds further fuel to a debate on how dinosaurs were doing when a 10km-wide space rock slammed into Earth 66 million years ago.
A team suggests the creatures were in long-term decline because they could not cope with the ways Earth was changing.
 
way【名】状況、状態
 
The study appears in PNAS journal.
Researchers analysed the fossil remains of dinosaurs from the point they emerged 231 million years ago up to the point they went extinct.
To begin with, new species evolved at an explosive rate. But things started to slow about 160 million years ago, leading to a decline in the number of species which commences at about 120 million years ago.
 
commence【自動】始まる、開始する
 
Dr Manabu Sakamoto, a palaeontologist from the University of Reading, who led the research, said: "We were not expecting this rsult."
"Even though they were wiped out ultimately by the impact of the asteroid, they were actually already on their way out around 50 million years before the asteroid hit."
 
on one's way out消滅[死滅]しかけて
 
Dr Sakamoto's analysis shows that the long-necked giant sauropod dinosaurs were declining the fastest, whereas theropods, the group of dinosaurs that included the iconic Tyrannosaurus rex, were in a more gradual decline.
Co-author Dr Chris Venditti, an evolutionary biologist from the University of Reading, told BBC News:
"The current widespread view is that dinosaurs were reigning strong right up to the impact that hit the Earth - and it's the impact that drove their final extinction," he said.
 
right up to~に至るまで
 
"And while that's certainly true, what we found was that they were on the decline long before that."
Dr Venditti believes that the dinosaurs' 50 million year decline rendered them even more susceptible to the environmental catastrophe that followed the asteroid impact.
"If they were reigning strong perhaps they would have fared much better than they did," he said.
 
fare【自動】やっていく
 
A study two years ago also indicated that some species were in decline, but only for the last few million years before the asteroid impact. The new research suggests that the problem began tens of millions of years earlier and affected a wider range of species.
So why were the dinosaurs in decline? No one knows but one possibility is an inability to cope with the way the environment was changing.
Evolutionary pressures
Conditions 230 million years ago were perfect for the dinosaurs when they first emerged, warm and lush from pole to equator.
But as the climate cooled and sea levels shifted, the dinosaurs may have been subjected to new evolutionary pressures.
Dinosaurs and mammals evolved at about the same time, but the former dominated the land surface for more than 100 million years.
The asteroid impact is commonly thought to have paved the way for mammals to take over. But the new study suggests that mammalian supremacy might have occurred eventually, without a space impact.
Co-author Prof Mike Benton of Bristol University, told BBC News: "World climates were getting cooler all the time. Dinosaurs rely on quite warm climates and mammals are better adapted to the cold.
"So there might have been a switch over in any case without the asteroid impact.
 
20160414
Nigeria Chibok girls 'shown alive' in Boko Haram video
A video released by the Nigerian Islamist group Boko Haram appears to prove that some of the schoolgirls kidnapped two years ago from the town of Chibok are still alive.
The video, sent to the Nigerian government, shows 15 girls in black robes identifying themselves as pupils abducted from the secondary school.
Some of those filmed have been identified by their parents.
It is the first footage of the girls to be seen since May 2014.
The kidnapping of the 276 girls triggered the global social media campaign #BringBackOurGirls, involving US first lady Michelle Obama and a host of celebrities.
 
host of《a ~》たくさんの、多くの
 
But despite their efforts, most of the girls are still missing.
Meanwhile, hundreds of parents are due to hold a march in the Nigerian capital, Abuja, to demand the government does more to find their daughters.
The BBC's Martin Patience in Abuja says they blame the previous government for doing nothing when the abduction took place and now the current administration for failing to devote enough resources to the search.
 
devote resourcesリソースを投入する
 
Boko Haram militants attacked the government boarding school in Borno state on 14 April 2014, seizing the girls who had gone there to take exams.
 
boarding school寄宿制[全寮制]の学校
board【他動】〔有料で人に毎日の〕賄い[食事]を出す
 
Shortly afterwards they released a video of them and demanded a prisoner exchange.
Boko Haram's leader, Abubakar Shekau, said the girls had converted to Islam and he threatened to force them into marriage with his fighters or sell them into slavery.
As the months passed, about 57 students managed to escape but at least 219 are still missing.
The latest video, apparently filmed on Christmas Day 2015, shows the girls pleading with the Nigerian government to co-operate with militants on their release.
They said they were being treated well but wanted to be with their families.
Two mothers, Rifkatu Ayuba and Mary Ishaya, said they recognised their daughters in the video while a third mother, Yana Galang, identified five of the missing girls, Reuters reported.
They were shown the video at a screening organised by local officials in Maiduguri, capital of Borno state.
"They were definitely our daughters... all we want is for the government to bring back our girls," said Mrs Galang.
Amnesty International says about 2,000 children have been abducted by Boko Haram since 2014. Many are used as sex slaves, fighters and even suicide bombers.
Although the militants are still launching attacks, the Nigerian army has made progress in its fight against them over the past year, our correspondent adds.
It has retaken towns and villages controlled by Boko Haram and has also freed hundreds of women and children held captive.
 
 
 
20160404
Tesla Model 3 electric car orders accelerate to 276,000
 
Tesla founder and chief executive Elon Musk says pre-orders of the firm's much-anticipated Model 3 electric car currently total 276,000.
The California-based firm unveiled the five-seater car - its lowest-cost vehicle to date - on Thursday.
Mr Musk tweeted the total reflected the orders received by the end of Saturday.
Pre-orders of the Model 3 will not necessarily all translate into actual sales when the car is released, with first deliveries in late 2017.
 
translate into〔結果として〕~になる
 
It can be ordered in advance in dozens of countries, including the UK, Republic of Ireland, Brazil, India, China and New Zealand.
Potential car owners need to put down $1,000 deposits to reserve their vehicles.
Such has been the interest that Mr Musk tweeted the company was "definitely going to need to rethink production planning".
 
such【形】そのような、とても~な
形容詞なので倒置かな。意味としては関心がとても高いのでMusk氏はツイートしたとなる。
 
Mr Musk has said his goal is to produce about 500,000 vehicles a year once production is at full capacity.
The basic model will start at $35,000 (£24,423) and have a range of at least 215 miles (346km) per charge.
 
Tesla delivered 50,580 vehicles last year. Most of those were its Model S saloon, which overtook Nissan's Leaf to become the world's best selling pure-electric vehicle.
But the firm still posted a net loss of $889m (£620m) for 2015, partly because it spent $718m on research and development over the period.
It left Tesla with cash reserves of $1.2bn, down from $1.9bn a year earlier.
The company is facing competition from other electric cars with a similar price and range that will become available first, including General Motors' Chevy Bolt and BYD's Qin EV300.
 
 
2013/03/29
A court case that had the US technology industry united against the FBI has, for the time being, gone away.
Now this debate moves into more uncertain times. The US government has knowledge of a security vulnerability that in theory weakens Apple devices around the world.
To protect its reputation, Apple will rush to find and fix that flaw. Assuming it can do that, this row is back to square one.
 
for the time being 差し当たり(は)、当分(の間)
go away【句動】消えうせる、〔問題が〕なくなる[解決する]
uncertain times将来への見通しが利かない時代
in theory理論的には、理論上は
rush to a decision 性急に[急いで]決定する
assuming【接続】~と仮定すれば
back to square one 出発点[振り出し]に戻って、一からやり直しで、初めからやり直して、元の木阿弥となって
 
正方形な争いに戻る? 一からやり直しの意味があるからまたこの意味で文意が明確になるからこれで覚える。